Ability to conceive and to produce offspring: for litter-bearing species the number of offspring per litter is used as a measure of fertility.
Note: Reduced fertility is sometimes referred to as subfertility.
Produces abnormalities of male or female reproductive functions or impairs reproductive capacity.
Substance applied to soil or hydroponic systems for improving the root nutrition of plants with the aim of increasing crop yields and (or) controlling production.
fetus (often incorrectly
Young mammal within the uterus of the mother from the visible completion of characteristic organogenesis until birth.
Note: In humans, this period is usually defined as from the third month after fertilization until birth (prior to this, the young mammal is referred to as an embryo).
Form of confidence limit given as a stated probability, for example P = 0.95.
Note: In toxicology the terms fiducial limits and confidence limits are generally considered to be synonymous.
See first-pass effect
fixed dose procedure
Acute toxicity test in which a substance is tested initially at a small number (3 or 4) predefined doses to identify which produces evident toxicity without lethality: the test may be repeated at one or more higher or lower defined discriminating doses to satisfy the criteria.
foci (singular focus)
Small groups of cells distinguishable, in appearance or histochemically, from the surrounding tissue: indicative of an early stage of a lesion that may lead to the formation of a neoplastic nodule.
See cohort study
Any substance, not normally consumed as a food by itself and not normally used as a typical ingredient of a given food, whether or not it has nutritive value, that is added intentionally to food for a technological (including organoleptic) purpose in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of the food. Addition results, or may be reasonably expected to result (directly or indirectly), in the substance or its byproducts becoming a component of, or otherwise affecting, the characteristics of the food to which it is added.
Note: The term does not include “contaminants” or substances added to food for maintaining or improving nutritional qualities.
Hypersensitivity reaction to substances in the diet to which an individual has previously been sensitized.
Sequence of transfer of matter and energy in the form of food from organism to organism in ascending or descending trophic levels.
Physiologically based reproducible, unpleasant (adverse) reaction to a specific food or food ingredient that is not immunologically based.
Network of food chains.
Method of stimulating diuresis based on performing hydrational therapy, sometimes with parallel introduction of diuretics, with the aim of achieving increased clearance of a toxic substance in urine.
Changes in allelic frequencies that occur when a small group is separated from a large population and establishes a colony in a new location.
Process of classification of an analyte or a group of analytes from a sample according to physical (e.g. size, solubility) or chemical (e.g. bonding, reactivity) properties.
Point mutation involving either the deletion or insertion of one or two nucleotides in a gene: by the frame shift mutation, the normal reading frame used when decoding nucleotide triplets in the gene is altered.
Substance that is vaporized in order to kill or repel pests.
Development and implementation of technologies to characterize the mechanisms through which genes and their products function and interact with each other and with the environment.
Substance intended to kill fungi.
Substance obtained from fungi that has an insecticidal effect reflecting the pathogenicity of the fungi for insects.